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Thursday, August 25, 2011

Explain Data Processing Cycle

After collecting data, it is processed to convert into information. The data is processed again and again until accurate result is achieved. This is called data processing cycle.
Data processing cycle involves following three basic activities:

1. Input

2. Processing

3. Output


It is the process in which collected data is given to computer after converting into binary form. Input step can be further divided into following steps:
i) Planning
Here objectives of data processing are defined. For example, in examination system, objective is to process student examination data to get result cards.
ii) Data Collecting
Here data is collected. Data is the raw material for data processing. This must be accurate for getting accurate results.
iii) Input
Here data is entered into computer.
iv) Verification
Here collected data is verified to determine whether it is valid for processing. For example marks must be in numeric form.
v) Coding
Data is stored in computer in binary form. Here data is converted (or coded) into computer readable (binary) form.


Now data is ready for processing. We process collected data to convert into information. Some important activities in processing are as following:
i) Data Classification
Here data is classified into different groups or sub-groups. So that it can be handled easily and separately. For example if we collect data about students of a college we will divide them into D.Com and B.Com class groups.
ii) Data Sorting
Here data is arranged in some order. So that it can be accessed quickly. For example we can sort student data by Roll number or name.
iii) Data Calculation/Processing
Here arithmetic and logical operations are performed on data to get the required result. For example total marks of each student are calculated.


After completing the processing, output is received. Output step involves following steps:
i) Testing
The results are tested to find if they are according to requirements. And any errors are removed. If results are not satisfactory then we repeat above-mentioned steps again and again until the accurate results are found.
ii) Summarizing
Huge results are summarized to make them short and precise.
iii) Storing results
The results are stored properly on secondary storage devices for future use.
iv) Output the result
Here output is produced as softcopy on screen or as hard copy as printout. Information is sent to different places as needed.
v) Feed Back
In this step we take comments from users about output results. If results are not satisfactory then we repeat above-mentioned steps again and again until the accurate results are found.