Monday, March 26, 2018

How To Create Income Tax Calculation Excel Worksheet

Microsoft Excel may be used to prepare employee pay sheet with Basic pay, medical allowance, conveyance allowance, house rent and income tax entries. Each of the mentioned entries in worksheet will be calculated automatically using functions and custom formulas applied to required cells in worksheet.
income tax calculation employees formulas excel
Income Tax calculation Formulas Calculate pay of employee using income tax in Excel
After entering the sample data in the worksheet, following formulas will be applied:

Q: Create an MS Excel Worksheet to calculate Net Pay of Employees. Input is EmpID, Name, Job
 and Basic Pay. Fill sample data in it as shown in the figure. Calculate Medical Allowance 10% of basic pay, House Rent 50% of basic Pay and Conveyance Allowance 30% of basic pay. Deduct income tax 5% of basic pay if basic pay is less than 30000 and income tax 10% otherwise.
BASIC FORMULAS:
Medical Allowance = D3 * 10%
House Rent                = D3 * 50%
Conveyance Allowance = D3 * 10%
Income Tax   = IF(D3<30000,D3*5%,D3*10%)
Net Pay  = SUM(D3:G3)-H3

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Friday, March 23, 2018

Explain Difference Between Compiler and Interpreter

Difference between Compiler and Interpreter

The Compiler and Interpreter are the two main types of Language Translator or Language Processor
Explain differences between compiler and interpreter in detail
Explain some important differences between Compiler and Interpreter


or Differentiate between Interpreter and Compiler


Compiler                                    Interpreter                             
1.    Compiler   converts   a   source program   into machine code as a whole.                                 1.  Interpreter    converts    a    source program    into machine code one statement at a time.           
2. Compiler after translating whole source program, creates object code file, that can be executed.   2. Interpreter does not create object code file. It only creates executable code for only one statement currently interpreted, which is executed. Next time second statement is translated and executed and so on. No object file is created.
3. Program execution is fast. Since once program is compiled successfully, an object code file is produced. Now this object code file is executed. No need of re-compilation unless we change the source code.

                      
3. Program execution is slow. Because every time we want to run a program it is interpreted again.                         
4. Error detection and error removal is comparatively difficult. Because, compiler will show a list of all errors in the whole program. Therefore, sorting out every error individually and removing the cause of error becomes more difficult and time consuming.
                   
4. Error detection and removing error is easy in case of interpreter, because interpreter will show when error at a time and its location in program. So that the programmer can easily catch and remove error.                           
5. More programming languages use compilers for translating source code to object code. 5. The number of high level programming languages that use Interpreter as an option to translate source code into object code is relatively smaller.
6. In compiled high level programming languages program execution does not require Translator or compiler for every execution. Because after first time of compilation, object code file is available that is used subsequently for onward program executions unless we change the source code. In case of change of source code, we need to re-compile the source code to show changes in the object code also. 6. In interpreted high level programming languages, translator program is needed every time for execution of the source program.


You would also like to read:

Types of Language Processors / Language Translators / Compiler, Interpreter, assembler


Wednesday, March 14, 2018

Calculate Your Age and Day of Birth in Excel

Sometimes, a person needs the exact age calculation from his / her date of birth to a specific date, for example when he / she applies for a job. The employer demands the required age must not be more that 21 years on the given last date for submitting job application.
Calculate your age from your date of birth in MS Excel with Datedif() function

            In such situation,  we need to calculate exact date in years, months and days. Because the difference of  a single day will also be considered.
           Today, we will learn, how to prepare Microsoft Excel Worksheet for calculating Age in Years, Months and Days with the help of formulas and functions provided in MS Excel. We will also find and display the actual day of birth from the given date of birth for a person.
Age Calculator Designed in Microsoft Excel Using DATEDIF Function
Age Calculator Designed in Microsoft Excel Using DATEDIF Function

Preparation Of MS Excel Worksheet To Tell your Age from Date of Birth

  1. First of all, start Microsoft Excel. Open a new blank workbook in MS Excel.
  2. Type the data in MS EXCEL worksheet as shown in above figure.
  3. You can perform any formatting on this worksheet with the help of different tools provided by Microsoft Excel like Font, Font Size, Font Color and Borders options.
  4. Consider the following worksheet prepared to calculate Age from Date of Birth up to a given date. 

 Inserting Formula Using DateDif( ) Built-in Excel Function for Age Calculation from Date of Birth

    After entering the data in Microsoft Excel worksheet, it is a time to insert an Excel formula that will use mainly the DateDif( ) function for age calculation from date of birth.

For this purpose, we apply the required age calculation formula in the cell with cell reference D5.
First of all type = then type name of the function DateDif() and type the following formula in its parentheses. 

Formula of Age Calculation From Date of Birth in Excel

Type the following formula without any formatting and without line break in cell with cell reference D5.
=DATEDIF(B5,C5,"Y")&" Years, " & DATEDIF(B5,C5,"YM")&" Months, " & DATEDIF(B5,C5,"MD")&" Days"

  1. Consider that,  line number 1 in blue color will produce the text 46 Years,
  2. Second line with red maroon color will produce the text output  2 Months,
  3. Ant the third line will produce text output 12 Days.

  Text Function Used to Display the Day of Birth as shown below in cell E5


=Text(B5,"dddd") 
This function will return the day name on the given date in cell B5. 

Download Free Age Calculator MS EXCEL Worksheet


 

DATEDIF( ) Function in MS EXCEL

Microsoft Excel provides a predefined function called DATEDIF(stands for date Difference) which will return the difference between two given dates in the form of years, months or days as required by the user.

Syntax of DATEDIF( ) Function is as follows:

=DATEDIF(starting_date, ending_date, time_unit)

The user will provide three arguments to DATEDIF function as follows:

•    starting_date - Starting date in Excel date serial number format.
•    ending_date - Ending date in Excel date serial number format.
•    unit - The time unit to use (years, months, or days). Actually, Y for years, M for months and D for days.

Example of using DATEDIF( ) Function in Microsoft Excel

=DATEDIF (A1,B1,”Y”)
Let the cell A1 contains starting date 1/3/2016 (3-Jan-2016)
Let the cell B1 contains the ending date  2/4/2017 (4-Feb-2017)
The result of DATEDIFF( ) will be 1. Because there is one complete year btween two given dates.

Therefore,  DATEDIF function will calculate the time interval between a starting_date and an ending_date in years, months, or days. The time unit to return is specified using the unit argument. Unit argument can take the following 6 values in uppercase or lower case, as shown in the following table. Unit argument is provided in the following way:
Age Calculation from Date of Birth in Excel Datedif()  function
Age Calculation from Date of Birth in Excel Datedif()  function

Download Free Age Calculator MS EXCEL Worksheet

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Tuesday, March 13, 2018

Create 3D Line Chart in MS EXCEL

Here is a simple Microsoft Office tutorial using Microsoft Excel to create a 3-D Line Chart.

You just need some sample data entered into a Microsoft Excel Worksheet and acting upon the steps provided in this Microsoft Excel Tutorial on Developing a 3-D Line Chart. The procedure is simple and explained with the help of clear and big images so that you can understand easily How to create a 3-D Line chart.

Step 1: Start MS Excel

Start Microsoft Excel with a new blank Excel Workbook. You will use the very first Microsoft Excel Worksheet for entering data and creating a 3-D Line chart.

Step 2: Type Sample Data for 3D Line Chart in Excel Worksheet

Type data of two cricket teams as shown in the figure. Type data in 3 columns, Overs, Scores Team
A, and Scores Team B.
Create 3 D line Chart in Microsoft Excel Easy Steps
Create 3 D line Chart in Microsoft Excel Easy Steps

Step 3: Select Data for 3D Line Chart

Select all data including the three columns from Overs to Score Team B.
Select Data Create 3 D line Chart in Microsoft Excel Easy Steps
Select Data Create 3 D line Chart in Microsoft Excel Easy Steps

Step 4: Click on Insert Tab

Click on Insert tab. Click on Line chart.
Create 3 D line Chart in Microsoft Excel Easy Steps
Click Insert Tab

Step 5: Select 3-D Line Chart (Chart Type)

Select 3-D line chart from available chart type options.
Select 3-D Line Chart Type
Select 3-D Line Chart Type

 Step 6:  Select Chart Layout

Select a chart layout as shown in the figure. You will get the required 3-D line Chart in Microsoft Excel for analysis of scores two cricket teams time to time with respect to overs played.
Develop a 3-D Line Chart in Microsoft Excel Worksheet - Select Chart Layout
Develop a 3-D Line Chart in Microsoft Excel Worksheet - Select Chart Layout




Microsoft Excel Formulas and Functions Fast and Easy Way -1

Using Simple Formulas in Excel With Arithmetic Operators 2

How Functions are Used in Excel Fast and Easy Way 3

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Employee Pay sheet Formulas in Microsoft Excel 
Students Test Score Grades Result Sheet in Excel

Electricity Bill Calculator Formulas in Excel 
 
Microsoft Office Word Processing Practicals

Monday, March 12, 2018

Explain Different Security Threats To Computer Systems

What is a Computer Security Threat?

A computer security threat may be defined as any action or event that may cause damage to any part of a computer system.
Computer System Security Threats
Computer System Security Threats

 How Does Computer Security Threat Cause Damage?

A Computer security threat may cause damage to hardware, software, data , information or processing capability of a computer system.

Different Types of Computer System Security Threat

There are many different types of security threats to computer systems as follows:

  • Hacker
  • Virus
  • Worm
  • Adware
  • Tech support scams
  • Ransomware 
  • PUP Potentially Unwanted Software

Hacker 


Hacker is a person who uses computer system to access private data of illegally. Hackers access a computer network and its resources illegally.
Hacker - Security Threats To Computer Systems and Networks
Hacker - Security Threats To Computer Systems and Networks

Hackers have a vast knowledge of computer science and are computer experts. They may have deep knowledge of  high level programming languages, low level programming language, operating systems, computer networks etc. But the problem is that they use their knowledge of computer science and computer systems for negative purpose. This purpose may be financial crimes through hacking online bank accounts or credit cards accounts of online users. Sometimes the purpose is only to annoy people or friends by hacking their social media accounts like face book accounts or twitter accounts. Sometimes hackers may hack email accounts also.

Some Problems Caused by Hackers

  • Hackers may steal the credit card numbers and other details for illegal use and can cause a lot of financial loss.
  • Hackers may hack the email accounts of people to use without the knowledge of their users.
  • Hackers try to access passwords so that they can access computer systems and intrude in the private networks illegally.
  • Hackers may steal private data and information of people through their computer system hack for black mailing purposes.


Virus

Computer Virus is a piece of code that can disturb the normal working of a computer system without 
permission or without knowledge of the affected user. Computer viruses are the most common security threat to computer systems all over the world.
Computer Virus- Security Threat To Computer System
Computer Virus- Security Threat To Computer System


Normally a virus will attach itself to a file. When the user executes this infected file, the virus is activated and create disturbance for the computer system working and for the user as well.

Moreover, when we transfer files from the infected flash drives, CDs, DVDs or portable hard drives, the virus is spread into other computer systems and networks.

Examples of  Computer Virus


MyDoom
AntiExe
Blaster
I LOVE YOU

Problems Caused by Computer Virus 

Viruses can:

  • damage the files stored on infected computer systems
  • affect the normal working process of computer systems
  • delete data stored on disk storage
  •  display unusual messages that annoy the user and disturb the normal working of the computer. These messages are shown on screen as alerts and user has to close that message dialog box before continue to his/her work.

Worms 

A computer worm is a standalone malware computer program that replicates itself in order to spread to other computers.  A worm copies itself repeatedly in memory or on disk until there left no space. This enforces a computer to stop working.
Computer Worm-Security Threats To Computer Systems
Computer Worm-Security Threats To Computer Systems

Difference Between a Virus and Worm

Often, it uses a computer network to spread itself. Unlike a computer virus, it does not need to attach itself to an existing program.  Worms typically cause harm to their host networks by consuming bandwidth and overloading web servers. Whereas viruses almost always corrupt or modify files on a targeted computer.

Examples of Worms

  • Melissa
  • SQL Slammer
  • Sasser
  • The Blaster

Problems Caused by Worm


  • Slow down the computer system by consuming available memory
  • Stop the computer working
  • Some applications may stop working
  • Destroy the files stored on infected computer systems

Adware

 Adware is a malicious code designed to display advertisements on your computer. Adware may redirect your search requests to advertising websites to collect marketing data about you, too. The advertisements are shown in popup windows without permission of the user. Adware can keep a record of the user activities on internet to guess his interests, then Adware program will show the advertisements according to the interests of the user.

Adware - Security Threats To Computer System
Adware - Security Threats To Computer System


 Tech Support System Scams

Tech support scams use scare strategy to trick you into getting help from some fake online technical support people to help you remove fake errors in your system. They demand you for paying for unnecessary technical support services. These fake services may  apparently fix a device of your computer system, an operating system defect  or some other software errors.

Technical Support SCAM - Security Threat To Computer Systems
Technical Support SCAM - Security Threat To Computer Systems

These scams can use websites to attract you into contacting fake technical support people. Online users  may be redirected to these websites automatically because of  nasty ads found in doubtful sites. These fake websites may be some sites providing fake installers of pirated software, movies or games with serial numbers or hacked setups.


Ransomware


Ransomware can restrict access to data by encrypting files. Sometimes, it may lock the computer screen for this purpose. It then attempts to obtain money by threat  from victims by asking for "ransom". The demand of the money is usually in form of crypt-currencies like Bitcoin.

CryptoLocker Ransomware Security Threat to Computer Systems
CryptoLocker Ransomware Security Threat to Computer Systems
Ransomware demand money in exchange for restoring access to encrypted data of the victim user.

Unwanted software


Unwanted software are programs that may change your Operating system experience like Windows settings etc. without your knowledge or permission.

For example unwanted software when installed automatically as a side effect of installing some other software you just downloaded and installed from an authentic website, will change your browser settings. One example of change of browser setting is to change the default page or default search engine setting of the web browser. Moreover unwanted software may show ads that cannot be closed easily. A Potentially Unwanted Program, also called in short as PUP. PUP is a software that contains adware, installs toolbars or has other unclear objectives.


You must always download software from trusted websites. Install freeware carefully. Normally malicious freeware will ask your permission to install some other software too in default setup settings. Read carefully the instructions about license and cancel any new installations.