# Perfect Computer Notes

Super Easy Short Computer Notes To Improve Computer Literacy and Your IT Skills

# Creating a Pie Chart in Microsoft Excel Tutorial With Pictures

## Why Do We Use Excel Pie Charts?

Excel Pie Charts are used in a Microsoft Excel Worksheet to display the contribution of each cell value to the total value.
 Creating Excel Pie Charts Easy Tutorial With Pictures

### Steps To Create Pie Chart in Excel

#### 1. Prepare Example Excel Worksheet For Pie Chart

Start Microsoft Excel with a new blank workbook. Microsoft Excel is a part of Microsoft Office.
Prepare a new Excel Worksheet as shown in the figure below to show Serial Numbers, Batsman and their Scores got in a cricket match. Fill in the sample data as you wish.

#### 2. Select Cell Range To Prepare Excel Pie Chart

Select The Two Columns named Batsman and Scores with filled values and column titles, as shown in the figure above.

#### 3. Use Insert Tab To Create Pie Chart

Click on Insert Tab and click on Pie Chart tool. Select a suitable type of Pie Chart, say we select the very first type from 2D pie charts. When you will click on this type of pie chart, the Pie Chart will be crated and shown in the you Excel worksheet as shown below.
 Steps to create a PIE Chart in MS Excel

 Explain the use of Pie Charts in Excel spreadsheet software

#### 4. Changing Layout of Excel Pie Chart

You can change the layout of your Pie chart easily by selecting a suitable layout on Chart Tools as shown in the figure below

#### 5. Getting the Final Excel Pie Chart

As soon as you click on your selected layout, the Pie chart will be changed to new layout look as shown in the figure below.

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Electricity Bill Calculator Formulas in Excel

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# Explain Procedural and Non Procedural Programming Languages

## Procedural Languages

In procedural languages a program is written as a sequence of instructions. We have to specify what to do and how to do (step by step procedure). These instructions are executed in the specified order. These instructions are written in order to solve a specific problem. Example of procedural languages are:

### Non-Procedural Languages

In non-procedural languages we have to specify only “what to do” and not “how to do”.  For example, SQL (structured query language) is a non procedural language. It is used in database systems. Other non procedural languages are

# Explain Different Types of Programming Languages and Differences

## What is a Programming Language?

A set of words, symbols and codes used to write programs is called programming language. Different programming languages are available for writing different types of programs.

 Explain different types of programming languages

With the help of computer language, a programmer tells a computer what to do. Some popular computer programming languages are C++, Java, Visual Basic etc. These are examples of high level programming languages. Whereas machine language and assembly language are called low level programming language.

### Another Definition of a Programming Language

A programming language is a language that is designed to be used (read and written) by humans to create programs that can be executed by computers. In other words we can say that programming languages provides the way so that the users may interact with the computer to give it commands and instructions to perform certain tasks.

### Types of Programming Languages

There are two main types of computer programming languages.
•    low-level languages
•    high-level languages.

### Low Level Programming Languages

These languages are near to computer hardware and far from human languages. Computer can understand these languages easily.

Following are two low-level languages:
•     Machine Language
•     Assembly Language

#### Machine Language

A computer language in which instructions are written in binary form (0 and 1) is called machine language. It is the only language that is directly understood by the computer. Machine language is the native language of computer.
A computer language in which instructions are written in binary form (0 and 1) is called machine language. It is the only language that is directly understood by the computer.

a)    Very fast program execution: Because the machine language is the native language of computer that computers directly understand and execute. There is no need of a translator program, because computer can already understand and execute the machine language instructions directly without the need of translation.

a)    Machine Language is difficult to understand
b)    Machine Language is difficult to learn
c)    Programs of Machine Language are difficult to modify
d)    Machine Language requires deep knowledge of hardware
e)    Programs of Machine Language are difficult to remove errors
f)    Programs of Machine Language are Machine dependent
Machine language is also known as first generation language.

### Assembly Language

 Assembly Language Example Code

Assembly language is a low-level language. In assembly language, symbols are used instead of binary code. These symbols are easy to remember. For example Add instruction is used to add two numbers.
Assembly language is also known as second generation language

a) Assembly language programs are executed with fast speed
b) Assembly language programming is easier to learn, understand and modify than machine language
a)    Assembly language programs are machine dependent
b)    Assembly language programming requires deep knowledge of hardware

## High Level Programming Languages

A type of language that is close to human languages is called high level language. High-level languages are easy to understand. Instructions of these languages are written in English-like words e.g. Print, Display, Write etc.

• COBOL
• BASIC
• PASCAL
• C
• C++
• JAVA
• Visual Basic

## Advantages of High Level Programming Languages:

a) High Level Programming Languages are Easy to learn and understand
b) Programs written in High Level Programming Languages are Easy to modify
c) It is Easy to remove errors in the Programs written in High Level Programming Languages
d) Programs written in High Level Programming Languages are Machine independent
e) High Level Programming Languages have Better documentation

#### Disadvantages of High Level Programming Languages

a) A disadvantage of High Level Programming Languages is slower program execution.
b) High Level Programming Languages provide programming facilities for performing Certain operations.

## FORTRAN

FORTRAN stands for FORmula TRANslation. It is mainly used for writing applications related to science and engineering fields.

## BASIC

BASIC stands for Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. It was invented in late 1960's to teach programming skills to students.

#### COBOL

COBOL stands for Common Business Oriented Language. It was especially designed for business applications.

#### C Language

C Language is one of the most popular programming language among students and beginners in the field of computer programming. C Language was designed by Dennis Ritchie at AT&T Bell Labs in 1972. Sometimes C Language is called a middle level language because it provides facilities to develop application software as well as system software. So C Language combines some important qualities of a high level language and a low level programming language.

### Difference between Low-level & High-level Language

 High-level Language Low-level Language 1.   High-level languages are easy to learn 1. Low-level languages are difficult to learn. 2.   near to human languages. 2, far from human languages. 3.    Programs in high-level languages are slow in execution. 3. Programs in low-level languages are fast in execution. 4.    Programs in high-level languages are easy to modify. 4. Programs   in   low-level   languages   are difficult to modify. 5.    Deep   knowledge   of hardware   is  not required to write programs. 5. Deep knowledge of hardware is required to write programs.